DO NOT 4 GET THE WHITES WHO HELPED BLACKS

10  MORE REASONS WHY WE AREN'T RICH, a commentary OBAMA,a change to what ? Part 2 by Brother Taalik November 2008 Angelsnupnup7's Visitor's Page Letter to a young misguided Black Muslim by Brother Taalik BARON d' HOLBOCH, a biography Imani  Entertainment Group's KEYSHIA COLE Angelsnupnup7's  December 2008 Visitor's Page Why I've chosen not 2 believe in God, a personal story REALITY'S  TEMPLE ON EARTH as hosted by Brother AdMinister Taalik Ibn'rad STATE OF MISSOURI PRACTICES LEGAL MURDER & ABUSE Yes  VIRGINIA , Allah ( GOD ) doesn't EXIST !!! STATE  OF ILLINOIS TERRORIZES RODNEY YODER SOLDIER  IN BATTLE-VOLUME TWO SOLDIER  IN BATTLE GOES TO COURT SOLDIER  IN BATTLE-VOLUME THREE POET'S CORNER VOLUME THREE ARE  AFRICAN AMERICANS ASHAMED OF BEING BLACK? SOLDIER  IN BATTLE-VOLUME FOUR ANGELSNUPNUP7'S  FAVORITE VISITOR OF THE MONTH I  FLEW OVER THE CUCKOOS NEST PSYCHIATRIC  ABUSE EXPOSED!!!!! I  DON'T WANT NO MILK,a commentary ANGELSNUPNUP7'S  VISITOR'S PAGE-JULY/AUGUST 2007 BLACK PSYCHIATRIST SPEAKS ON WHITE SUPREMACY IS  THE WHITEMAN THE DEVIL? THE  N' WORD GET OVER IT!!! ANGELSNUPNUP7'S  VISITOR'S PAGE-OCTOBER 2007 DO NOT 4 GET THE WHITES WHO HELPED BLACKS MESSAGE  TO THE MISGUIDED BLACKMAN OF AMERICA THE FINAL CALL HEADLINE NEWS HEALTH-NATURAL CURES.COM WOULD BEING AN ATHEIST BE BETTER FOR US? POET'S CORNER VOLUME ONE JUST HOW DISGUSTING IS ORAL/ANAL SEX? IS THIS MASTER WALLACE FARD MUHAMMAD? THE  BIOLOGY OF RELIGION,a commentary ISLAM  JUSTIFIES SLAVERY , a commentary DID  JESUS REALLY EXIST? a commentary DID PROPHET MUHAMMAD REALLY EXIST? a commentary WERE JEWS/HEBREWS HELD AS SLAVES IN EGYPT?, a commentary ANGELSNUPNUP7'S  VISITOR'S PAGE-SEPTEMBER 2007 COULD  THE HOLOCAUST BE A MYTH ? a commentary WHY SHOULD GOD BE BETTER THAN YOU? RESPONSE  2 THE RACIST CAUCASION MALE OFFICIAL RECORDS SHOW THE JEWISH HOLOCAUST AS FRAUD PORK the most dangerous meat of them all !!!! DOES THE U.S. REJOICE IN THE RETURN OF JIM CROW? HONKY should CAUCASIONS get over it ? A commentary OH GOD! IT'S A BLACKMAN WITH A GUN... BLACKS ARE OF A LOWER INTELLIGENCE ? a commentary ANGELSNUPNUP7'S  VISITOR'S PAGE-NOVEMBER 2007 WILL  THE SO CALLED NEGRO JOIN al-QAIDA? SHOULD THE SO CALLED NEGRO or BLACKS RECEIVE REPARATIONS? ANGELSNUPNUP7'S  VISITOR'S PAGE- DECEMBER 2007 WHY  DO CAUCASIONS ALL OF SUDDEN LOVE MALCOM x ? EUROPEAN  JEWS NO BLOODLINE TO ABRAHAM ? MAN TERRORIZED BY BLOODTHIRSTY MISSOURI STATE PSYCHIATRISTS,FREED! Psychiatric Evaluation of Brother Lorne Lei Wray 2007 Can the GOVERNMENT force psychiatric drugs on CITIZENS? PRETTY  RELIGION ( when good folks do nothing ) Brother Wray requests MERCY from the court Brother Wray petitions for release from PARASITIC psychiatrists Brother  Wray SPEAKS to JUDGE David Dowd Brother Wray,plaintiff versus Missouri Dept. of Mental Health,defendant  Angelsnupnup7's VISITOR'S PAGE- January 2008 CLOUD WITH A SILVER LINING - VOLUME ONE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE that SILENT KILLER Fair Debt Collections Act of 1978 The Taalik & Khalifa SHOW-January 2008 VISITOR'S PAGE We Must STOP the rise of a BLACK MESSIAH (JESUS) Angelsnupnup7's Visitor's Page- The Taalik & Khalifa SHOW Episode 2 Angelsnupnup7's Visitor's Page - February 2008 Basic Knowledge of the Nation of Islam The Joke called Black Entertainment Television, a commentary Angelsnupnup7's Visitor's Page-March 2008 What does the REALITY'S TEMPLE stand for ? CLOUD WITH A SILVER LINING - VOLUME TWO Angelsnupnup7's Visitor's Page -April 2008 IN LOVING MEMORY OF MY FATHER LIONEL CHAVIS Slavery  Reparations - past over due ! a commentary Angelsnupnup's Visitor's Page as of MAY 2008 Slavery  Reparations from WIKIPEDIA Angelsnupnup7's Visitors page for JUNE 2008 The Nation of Islam, a Brutal Legacy ? Nation of Islam involved in the ZEBRA murders ? SOLDIER  IN BATTLE-VOLUME ONE Angelsnupnup7's Visitor's Page as of JULY / AUGUST 2008 Does B.C. mean before CHRIST, a commentary How To Buy a Good USED CAR , a commentary Congratulations to President- Elect BARACK OBAMA OBAMA , a Change to What?..a message by Brother Taalik Did Moses Exist ? a discussion November  2008-Angelsnupnup7's Visitor's Page Part 2 Zoroastrianism, a religion, a Commentary 2009/January  Visitor's Page PROPOSAL for the SOLUTION of the PROBLEMS of so called BLACKS POET'S CORNER VOLUME TWO How  2 Control People The plans for GLOBAL Dictatorship QUACKERY  is Psychiatry, NO DOUBT ! Hip Hop Nation the builders of a new Civilization SARA  SUTEN SET cancels great debate with Dr. WESLEY MUHAMMAD ....and the BLACKWOMAN made MAN This WORLD has made SEX very,very, NASTY Misery loves company in the BLACK Community  Brother Taalik SPEAKS !!! DARK  EUROPEANS calling themselves BLACK PEOPLE The Blackman GOD of the UNIVERSE ....understanding the WHITEMAN'S HISTORY Brother Taalik SPEAKS!!!## 2 GREAT REWARD 4 Black People MICHAEL JACKSON dies at age 50 Brother Taalik Speaks ## 3 MESSAGE  2 SARA SUTEN SETI Michael Jackson his Life & Times a GLOBAL ICON The Moorish American- A Brief History Being Sicilan & What I Think About GOD WHY  I DO NOT SUPPORT GLOBAL AFRICAN SUPREMACY The UnderCover Racist called KKILO34 The TROUBLEMAKER called Sara Suten Seti SUICIDE NOTE of a DOMESTIC TERRORIST The INTERRACIAL & HOMOSEXUAL in Black Liberation Is a RACE WAR Coming ? JEWS & The Black Holocaust



 

 

ANGELSNUPNUP7  HONORS  THOSE  PERSONS WHO ARE NOT OF COLOR WHO HELPED THE STRUGGLE FOR RACIAL JUSTICE

 

            ON  THIS PAGE WE WILL ATTEMPT TO HONOR THOSE PERSONS OTHER THAN PERSONS OF COLOR THEMSELVES WHO IN THE PAST & PRESENTLY AID IN THE STRUGGLE FOR RACIAL JUSTICE. IT SEEMS VERY EASY FOR SOME BLACKS TO POINT THE FINGER AT THOSE WHO CAUSE THEM HARM OR SOME GRAVE INJUSTICE, BUT THE TRUTH OF THE MATTER IS IF IT WASN'T FOR CERTAIN CAUCASION PEOPLE OR EVEN THE CAUCASION ENEMY HIMSELF, MANY BLACKS IN AMERICA WOULD NOT HAVE THE RIGHTS OR FREEDOMS THEY HAVE TODAY. THE BLACKMAN IN AMERICA UNLIKE THE CAUCASIONS WHO FOUGHT THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR DID NOT EARN THEIR FREEDOM, IT WAS GIVEN TO THEM THRU A DISPUTE BETWEEN NORTHERN & SOUTHERN CAUCASION PEOPLE, SLAVERY WAS NOT THE ISSUE THAT CAUSED THE CIVIL WAR, HOWEVER IT WAS SOMETHING ADDED TO ENHANCE ONE'S POSITION LOOKING FOR SUPPORT.GEORGE WASHINGTON FOUGHT OFF THEIR OPPRESSOR AND WON INDEPENDENCE FROM ENGLAND, NOW ENGLAND RESPECTS AMERICA IT'S BABY, IN FACT BABY HAS GROWN TO BECOME A WORLD POWER. BLACKS IN AMERICA WAS GIVEN FREEDOM & MADE MORE DEPENDENT, THEY HAVE EARNED NO RESPECT AND HAVE BECOME A BABY,DEPENDING ON AMERICA TO DO FOR THEM WHAT THEY CAN DO FOR THEMSELVES, IF AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE A NATION TO THEMSELVES THEY WOULD BE THE 10TH RICHEST NATION IN THE WORLD, NOT BAD FOR 3RD RATE CITIZENS.  SO WHY ARE BLACKS IN SUCH BAD SHAPE AFTER ALL OF THEIR ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND HELP FROM OTHERS? THEY ALLOW THEIR ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO BE STOLEN & ACHIEVEMENTS TO BE GIVEN IN REPRESENTATION OF A COUNTRY OF WHERE YOU ARE TREATED AS A THIRD CLASS CITIZEN, THE BLACK MALE CONTINUES TO ALLOW THE GOVERNMENT TO RAISE HIS CHILDREN BOTH PHYSICALLY & MENTALLY, HE IS NOT IN THE HOME, STILL ACTING LIKE THE STUD HORSE OF SLAVERY, IN FACT BLACKS IN AMERICA ARE STILL SLAVES, VOLUNTARY SLAVES, SLAVERY IS ALL THEY KNOW, THIS IS WHY PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR A WHITE ABOLITIONIST NAMED JOHN BROWN RAISED ARMS & ASKED THE SLAVE TO FIGHT FOR HIS FREEDOM, THEY REFUSED AND RAN TO MASTER AS THEY DO TILL THIS DAY, THEY LEAVE YOU ALONE & JOHN BROWN WAS LEFT TO HANG, REFUSING TO PLEA INSANITY. WE WILL NEVER FORGET THOSE BLACK FREEDOM FIGHTERS BUT WE WILL NOT BE UNEQUAL WE WILL ALSO GIVE RESPECT/REMEMBRANCE TO WHITES & OTHERS WHO ALSO GAVE THEIR LIVES FOR THE BETTERMENT OF BLACKS IN AMERICA IF YOU'D LIKE TO ADD MORE PLEASE TELL US ABOUT HIM OR HER. WE GIVE THIS FIRST TRIBUTE TO JOHN BROWN, A WARRIOR AGAINST SOCIAL INJUSTICE & A REAL CHRISTIAN MAN, TODAY WE HONOR HIM.

                                                                        Taalik Ibn'rad

 

John Brown
(1800 - 1859)
        Born in Torrington, Connecticut on May 9, 1800, John Brown was the son of a wandering New Englander. Brown spent much of his youth in Ohio, where he was taught in local schools to resent compulsory education and by his parents to revere the Bible and hate slavery. As a boy he herded cattle for Gen. William Hull's army during the war of 1812; later he served as foreman of his family's tannery. In 1820 he married Dianthe Lusk, who bore him 7 children; 5 years later they moved to Pennsylvania to operate a tannery of their own. Within a year after Dianthe's death in 1831, Brown wed 16-year-old Mary Anne Day, by whom he fathered 13 more children.
        During the next 24 years Brown built and sold several tanneries, speculated in land sales, raised sheep, and established a brokerage for wool growers. Every venture failed, for he was too much a visionary, not enough a businessman. As his financial burdens multiplied, his thinking became increasingly metaphysical and he began to brood over the plight of the weak and oppressed. He frequently sought the company of blacks, for 2 years living in a freedmen's community in North Elba, N.Y. In time he became a militant abolitionist, a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad, and the organizer of a self-protection league for free blacks and fugitive slaves.
        By the time he was 50, Brown was entranced by visions of slave uprisings, during which racists paid horribly for their sins, and he came to regard himself as commissioned by God to make that vision a reality. In Aug. 1855 he followed 5 of his sons to
Kansas to help make the state a haven for anti-slavery settlers. The following year, his hostility toward slave-staters exploded after they burned and pillaged the free-state community of Lawrence. Having organized a militia unit within his Osawatomie River colony, Brown led it on a mission of revenge. On the evening of 23 May 1856
, he and 6 followers, including 4 of his sons, visited the homes of pro-slavery men along Pottawatomie Creek, dragged their unarmed inhabitants into the night, and hacked them to death with long-edged swords. At once, "Old Brown of Osawatomie" became a feared and hated target of slave-staters.
        In autumn 1856, temporarily defeated but still committed to his vision of a slave insurrection, Brown returned to
Ohio. There and during 2 subsequent trips to Kansas, he developed a grandiose plan to free slaves throughout the South. Provided with moral and financial support from prominent New England abolitionists, Brown began by raiding plantations in Missouri
but accomplished little. In the summer of 1859 he transferred his operations to western Virginia, collected an army of 21 men, including 5 blacks, and on the night of October 16th raided the government armory and arsenal at Harpers Ferry From there he planned to arm the thousands of chattels who, learning of his crusade, would flock to his side. Instead, numerous bands of militia and a company of U.S. Marines under Bvt. Col. Robert E. Lee hastened to the river village, where they trapped the raiders inside the fire-engine house and on the 18th stormed the building. The fighting ended with 10 of Brown's people killed and 7 captured, Brown among them.
        After a sensational trial, he was found guilty of treason against
Virginia and was hanged at Charlestown, amid much fanfare,  Dec. 2, 1859
. The stately, fearless, unrepentant manner in which he comported himself in court and on the gallows made him a martyr in parts of the North.
Source: "Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War" Edited by Patricia L. Faust
John Brown's RaidA good read on John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry.

RETURN TO CIVIL WAR BIOGRAPHY PAGE 

 

 

 

 

 

The Freedom Sympathizers and Fighters

As early as 1786, organizations had been founded to protest the practice of slavery in the United States. For instance, the Pennsylvania Abolition society, whose members included George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine and the Marquis de Lafayette, was one of the many abolitionist groups that assisted fugitive slaves in their attempts to find freedom in the Free States. People who contributed to the cause of emancipation or freeing of slaves were called "abolitionists." The most famous of them all is John Brown who was hanged for seizing "the government arsenal at Harper's Ferry,Virginia, in the hope of igniting a general uprising of slaves" in 1859 (Blockson, 14). Native Americans such as the Ottawa Indians, Seminoles, and Shinnecocks also joined the movement to freedom. Of course, there were many African American themselves who persevered and risked persecution for this cause. Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglas and William Still are just few of the African Americans who led the road to freedom. Other important people in American history who were Abolitionists include Thaddeus Stevens, Alan Pinkerton, Henry David Thoreau, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and William Lloyd Garrison.
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William Lloyd Garrison

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, searchWilliam Lloyd GarrisonWilliam Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. 

Contents

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[edit] Career as a reformer

When he was 25, Garrison joined the Abolition movement. For a brief time he became associated with the American Colonization Society, an organization that believed free blacks should immigrate to a territory on the west coast of Africa. Although some members of the society encouraged granting freedom to slaves, the majority saw the relocation as a means to reduce the number of free blacks in the United States and thus help preserve the institution of slavery. By 1828, Garrison had rejected the programs of the American Colonization Society.

[edit] Genius of Universal Emancipation

Garrison soon became involved with the opposition to slavery, writing for and then becoming co-editor with Benjamin Lundy of the Quaker Genius of Universal Emancipation newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland. Garrison's experience as a printer and newspaper editor allowed him to revamp the layout of the paper and freed Lundy to spend more time traveling as an antislavery speaker. Garrison initially shared Lundy's gradualist views, but, while working for the Genius, he became convinced of the need to demand immediate and complete emancipation. Lundy and Garrison continued to work together on the paper in spite of their differing views, agreeing simply to sign their editorials to indicate who had written it.One of the regular features that Garrison introduced during his time at the Genius was "The Black List," a column devoted to printing short reports of "the barbarities of slavery — kidnappings, whippings, murders." One of Garrison's "Black List" columns reported that a shipper from Garrison's home town of Newburyport, Massachusetts — one Francis Todd — was involved in the slave trade, and that he had recently had slaves shipped from Baltimore to New Orleans on his ship Francis. Todd filed a suit for libel against both Garrison and Lundy, filing in Maryland in order to secure the favor of pro-slavery courts. The state of Maryland also brought criminal charges against Garrison, quickly finding him guilty and ordering him to pay a fine of $50 and court costs. (Charges against Lundy were dropped on the grounds that he had been traveling and not in control of the newspaper when the story was printed.) Garrison was unable to pay the fine and was sentenced to a jail term of six months. He was released after seven weeks when the antislavery philanthropist Arthur Tappan donated the money for the fine, but Garrison had decided to leave Baltimore and he and Lundy amicably agreed to part ways.

[edit] The Liberator

In 1831, Garrison returned to New England and founded a weekly anti-slavery newspaper of his own, The Liberator. Garrison started a 30 year war with words through his writings. In the first issue, Garrison stated:I am aware that many object to the severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject, I do not wish to think, or to speak, or write, with moderation. No! no! Tell a man whose house is on fire to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen; – but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest – I will not equivocate – I will not excuse – I will not retreat a single inch – AND I WILL BE HEARD. The apathy of the people is enough to make every statue leap from its pedestal, and to hasten the resurrection of the dead.William Lloyd Garrison, “To the Public,” from the Inaugural Editorial in the 1 January 1831 The Liberator'Initial circulation of the Liberator was relatively limited -- there were fewer than 400 subscriptions during the paper's second year. However, the publication gained subscribers and influence over the next three decades, until, after the end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery nation-wide by the Thirteenth Amendment, Garrison published the last issue (number 1,820) on December 29, 1865, writing in his "Valedictory" column,Commencing my editorial career when only twenty years of age, I have followed it continuously till I have attained my sixtieth year—first, in connection with The Free Press, in Newburyport, in the spring of 1826; next, with The National Philanthropist, in Boston, in 1827; next, with The Journal of the Times, in Bennington, Vt., in 1828–9; next, with The Genius of Universal Emancipation, in Baltimore, in 1829–30; and, finally, with the Liberator, in Boston, from the 1st of January, 1831, to the 1st of January, 1866;—at the start, probably the youngest member of the editorial fraternity in the land, now, perhaps, the oldest, not in years, but in continuous service,—unless Mr. Bryant, of the New York Evening Post, be an exception. ... The object for which the Liberator was commenced—the extermination of chattel slavery—having been gloriously consummated, it seems to me specially appropriate to let its existence cover the historic period of the great struggle; leaving what remains to be done to complete the work of emancipation to other instrumentalities, (of which I hope to avail myself,) under new auspices, with more abundant means, and with millions instead of hundreds for allies.William Lloyd Garrison, "Valedictory: The Last Number of The Liberator", December 29, 1865.

[edit] Organizations and controversy

In 1832, Garrison founded the New-England Anti-Slavery Society. The next year, he co-founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. That same year, 1833, Garrison also visited the United Kingdom and assisted in the anti-slavery movement there. He intended that the Anti-Slavery Society should not align itself with any political party and that women should be allowed full participation in society activities. Garrison was influenced by the ideas of Susan Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Lucy Stone and other feminists who joined the society. These positions were seen as controversial by the majority of Society members and there was a major rift in the Society. In 1839, two brothers, Arthur Tappan and Lewis Tappan, left and formed a rival organization, the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society which did not admit women. A segment of the Society also withdrew and aligned itself with the newly founded Liberty Party, a political organization which named James G. Birney as its Presidential candidate. By the end of 1840, Garrison announced the formation of a third new organization, the Friends of Universal Reform, with sponsors and founding members including prominent reformers Maria Chapman, Abby Kelley Foster, Oliver Johnson, and Bronson Alcott (father of Louisa May Alcott).Meanwhile, on September 4, 1834, Garrison married Helen Eliza Benson (1811-1876), the daughter of a retired abolitionist merchant. The couple had five sons and two daughters, of whom a son and a daughter died as children.In 1853, Garrison credited Reverend John Rankin of Ohio as a primary influence on his career, calling him his "anti-slavery father" and saying that Rankin's "...book on slavery was the cause of my entering the anti-slavery conflict." (Hagedorn, p. 58)William Lloyd Garrison, engraving from 1879 newspaperGarrison made a name for himself as one of the most articulate, as well as most radical, opponents of slavery. His approach to emancipation stressed nonviolence and passive resistance, and he attracted a vocal following. While some other abolitionists of the time favored gradual emancipation, Garrison argued for "immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves".Garrison and The Liberator were ardently supported by the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society, which held meetings, sponsored lectures, and helped to strengthen the female anti-slavery network throughout the Northeast.When someone attending one of Garrison's speeches objected that slavery was protected by the United States Constitution, Garrison replied that if this was true, then the Constitution should be burnt. Garrison had a long close history with Frederick Douglass but the two eventually had differences regarding the value of the United States Constitution, which Garrison called a "covenant with death and an agreement with Hell." Douglass had originally shared Garrison's anti-Constitution views, but he later came to be convinced, by the arguments of Lysander Spooner and Gerrit Smith, that the Constitution mandated emancipation, while Garrison burned copies of it publicly, calling it a pro-slavery document. The two men parted company and did not reconcile until the 1870s.Garrison's outspoken anti-slavery views repeatedly put him in danger. Besides his imprisonment in Baltimore, the government of the State of Georgia offered a reward of $5,000 for his arrest, and he received numerous and frequent death threats.One of the most controversial events in pre-Civil War Boston history resulted from an Anti-Slavery Society lecture. In the fall of 1835, the society invited George Thompson, a fiery British abolitionist, to address them. When Thompson was unable to attend, Garrison agreed to take his place. An unruly mob threatened to storm the building in search of Thompson. The Mayor and police persuaded the Boston Female Anti-Slavery members to leave. The mob, however, pursued Garrison through the streets of Boston. Garrison was rescued from lynching and lodged overnight in the Leverett Street Jail before leaving the city for several weeks.Garrison occasionally allowed essays in The Liberator from others, including 14-year-old Anna Dickinson, who in 1856 wrote an impassioned article pleading for emancipation of the slaves.

[edit] After abolition

After the abolition of slavery in the United States, Garrison continued working on other reform movements, especially temperance and women's suffrage. He ended the run of The Liberator at the end of 1865, and in May 1865, announced that he would resign the Presidency of the American Anti-Slavery Society and proposed a resolution to declare victory in the struggle against slavery and dissolve the Society. The resolution prompted sharp debate, however, by critics — led by his long-time ally Wendell Phillips — who argued that the mission of the AAS was not fully completed until black Southerners gained full political and civil equality. Garrison maintained that while complete civil equality was vitally important, the special task of the AAS was at an end, and that the new task would best be handled by new organizations and new leadership. With his long-time allies deeply divided, however, he was unable to muster the support he needed to carry the resolution, and the motion was defeated 118-48. Garrison went through with his resignation, declining an offer to continue as President, and Wendell Phillips assumed the Presidency of the AAS. Garrison declared that "My vocation, as an Abolitionist, thank God, has ended." Returning home to Boston, he told his wife resignedly, "So be it. I regard the whole thing as ridiculous." He withdrew completely from the AAS, which continued to operate for five more years, until the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. (According to Henry Mayer, Garrison was hurt by the rejection, and remained peeved for years; "as the cycle came around, always managed to tell someone that he was not going to the next set of [AAS] meetings" [594].)After his withdrawal from AAS and the end of The Liberator, Garrison continued to participate in public debate and to support reform causes, devoting special attention to the causes of feminism and of civil rights for blacks. During the 1870s, he made several speaking tours, contributed columns on Reconstruction and civil rights for the The Independent and the Boston Journal, took a position as associate editor and frequent contributor with the Woman's Journal, and participated in the American Woman Suffrage Association with his old allies Abby Kelley and Lucy Stone. While working with the AWSA in 1873, he finally healed his long estrangements from Frederick Douglass and Wendell Phillips, affectionately reuniting with them on the platform at an AWSA rally organized by Kelly and Stone on the one hundredth anniversary of the Boston Tea Party (Mayer 614). When Charles Sumner died in 1874, some Republicans suggested Garrison as a possible successor to his Senate seat; Garrison declined on grounds of his moral opposition to taking government office (Mayer 618).Garrison spent more time at home with his family, writing weekly letters to his children, and caring for his increasingly ill wife, who had suffered a small stroke on 30 December 1863 and was increasingly confined to the house. Helen died on January 25, 1876, after a severe cold worsened into pneumonia. A quiet funeral was held in the Garrison home, but Garrison, overcome with grief and confined to his bedroom with a fever and severe bronchitis, was unable to join the service downstairs. Wendell Phillips gave a eulogy and many of Garrison's old abolitionist friends joined him upstairs to offer their private condolences. Garrison recovered slowly from the loss of his wife, and began to attend Spiritualist circles in the hope of communicating with Helen (Mayer 621). Garrison made a final visit to England in 1877, where he visited George Thompson and other old friends from the British abolitionist movement (Mayer 622).Garrison, ailing from kidney disease, continued to weaken during April 1879, and went to live with his daughter Fanny's family in New York City. In late May his condition worsened, and his five surviving children rushed to join him. Fanny asked if he would enjoy singing some hymns, and although Garrison was unable to sing, his children sang his favorite hymns for him while he beat time with his hands and feet. On Saturday morning, Garrison lost consciousness, and died just before midnight on May 24, 1879 (Mayer 626). Garrison was buried in the Forest Hills Cemetery in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts on May 28, 1879, after a public memorial service with eulogies by Theodore Dwight Weld and Wendell Phillips. Eight abolitionist friends, both white and black, served as his pallbearers. Flags were flown at half-staff all across Boston (Mayer 67-628). Frederick Douglass, then employed as a United States Marshal, spoke in memory of Garrison at a memorial service in a church in Washington, D.C., saying "It was the glory of this man that he could stand alone with the truth, and calmly await the result" (Mayer 631).

[edit] Surviving family

Garrison's son, also named William Lloyd Garrison (1838-1909), was a prominent advocate of the single tax, free trade, woman's suffrage, and of the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act. A second son, Wendell Phillips Garrison (1840-1907), was literary editor of the New York Nation from 1865 to 1906. Two other sons (George Thompson Garrison and Francis Jackson Garrison, his biographer) and a daughter (Helen Frances Garrison) survived him.Honoring Garrison's 200th birthday, in December 2005 his descendants gathered in Boston for the first family reunion in about a century. They discussed the legacy and impact of their most notable family member.He became famous for his 1,820 issues of "The Liberator"

[edit] Quotations

Photograph of Garrison
  • "I am in earnest – I will not equivocate – I will not excuse – I will not retreat a single inch – I WILL BE HEARD." (See above)
  • "had not a drop of anti-slavery blood in his veins." (regarding Abraham Lincoln)
  • "I accuse the land of my nativity of insulting the majesty of Heaven with the grossest mockery that was ever exhibited to man." [1]
  • "With reasonable men, I will reason; with humane men I will plead; but to tyrants I will give no quarter, nor waste arguments where they will certainly be lost." Life. Vol. i. Page 188.
  • "Our country is the world, our countrymen are all mankind. We love the land of our nativity, only as we love all other lands. The interests, rights, and liberties of American citizens are no more dear to us than are those of the whole human race. Hence we can allow no appeal to patriotism, to revenge any national insult or injury." Declaration of Sentiments, Boston Peace Conference, September 1838

[edit] Works online

[edit] See also

[edit] References

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William Lloyd Garrison
  • Abzug, Robert H. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-503752-9.
  • Hagedorn, Ann. Beyond The River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad. Simon & Schuster, 2002. ISBN 0-684-87065-7.
  • Mayer, Henry. All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. ISBN 0-312-25367-2.
  • Laurie, Bruce Beyond Garrison. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-60517-2.
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2007)

[edit] External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Lloyd_Garrison"Categories: American abolitionists | American journalists | American newspaper founders | American newspaper publishers (people) of the 19th century | American Christians | People of Massachusetts in the American Civil War | 1805 births | 1879 deaths
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Harriet Beecher Stowe

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Jump to: navigation, search
Harriet Beecher Stowe

Born:June 14, 1811
Flag of the United States Litchfield, Connecticut
Died:July 1, 1896
Flag of the United States Hartford, Connecticut
Occupation:Writer

Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811July 1 , 1896) was an American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. It made the political issues of the 1850s regarding slavery tangible to millions, energizing anti-slavery forces in the North. It angered and embittered the South. The impact is summed up in a commonly quoted statement apocryphally attributed to Abraham Lincoln when he met Stowe, "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war!"[1]

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[edit] Life

Born in Litchfield, Connecticut in the year 1811, she was the daughter of Lyman Beecher, an abolitionist Congregationalist preacher from Boston, and Roxana Foote Beecher. She was the sister of the renowned minister Henry Ward Beecher. Roxana died when Harriet was four. She had two other prominent and activist siblings, a brother, Charles Beecher, and a sister, Isabella Beecher Hooker. In 1832, her family moved to Cincinnati, another hotbed of the abolitionist movement, where her father became the first president of Lane Theological Seminary. There she gained second-hand knowledge of slavery and the Underground Railroad and was moved to write Uncle Tom's Cabin, the first major American novel with an African-American hero. She never visited a plantation, but did talk with former slaves.

In 1836 Harriet Beecher married Calvin Ellis Stowe, a clergyman and widower. They moved to Brunswick, Maine, when he became a professor at Bowdoin College. Harriet and Calvin had seven children, but four of the seven died before she did. Her first children were twin girls named Hattie and Eliza. They were born on September 29, 1836. Four years later, in 1840, her son Frederick William was born. In 1848 the birth of Samuel Charles occurred, but in the following year, he died during a cholera epidemic. Because of the pain she felt when she lost her son Samuel, she attributed it to how a mother in slavery would have felt being sold away from her children at the selling block. This was the biggest factor behind her writing Uncle Tom's Cabin, seen in her character Eliza Harris who runs away from slavery when her son was going to be sold away from her.

[edit] Writing Uncle Tom's Cabin

In 1850, the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law stirred Stowe to the abolitionist side. Her sister-in-law wrote her saying, "Harriet, if I could use a pen as you can, I would write something that would make this whole nation feel what an accursed thing slavery is." After reading this aloud to her children Harriet dramatically crumpled the paper in her hand and said, "I will write something if I live." While at church she is said to have had a vision of "Uncle Tom's death" and was reportedly moved to tears. Immediately she went to her home and started writing her book.

Stowe began researching slavery. She interviewed fugitive slaves and slave owners with all points of views, and read several books. Later in 1851, with the help of William Lloyd Garrison, the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, Stowe began publishing fictional sketches. These appeared during 1851 in the Cincinnati abolitionist newspaper, The National Era under the title "Uncle Tom's Cabin" or "Life Among the Lowly". Her main character is widely believed to have been based on Josiah Henson who published his own account of being enslaved. After prompting from readers and her husband, who believed in her story's power to change the mind, she published her sketches as a two volume book in 1852. Within a week of its release in the U.S., her book sold a phenomenal 10,000 copies, and 300,000 the first year. Sales were even higher in Britain. By 1854, her book was translated into 60 different languages.

Stowe's book had an astounding effect on the Northern states of America. Thousands more flocked to the abolitionist side. However, the rift dividing the north and south deepened. The south denied that the book was a true account of southern life, and took it as an accusation. The south even went to such severe measures as to ban the book and arrest anyone in possession of it. In their defense the south wrote mocking books praising the good of slavery such as "Aunt Phillis's Cabin; or Southern Life as it is." In response Stowe gathered all her information and wrote, "A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin." This book was written to prove she researched her topic. Yet, though written to the south, it was not read as widely there as elsewhere.

However, all the way across the Atlantic in Great Britain the message of Uncle Tom was also embraced, supported from its inception by the powerful advocate Rev. James Sherman in London. In 1853 Harriet went on a tour of Europe, speaking on her book. Upon her arrival in England she was given a very warm welcome and was presented with an address, known as the Affectionate and Christian Address, from the Anti-Slavery Society, with over half a million signatures from noble women, down to the peasants. This was given to her in 26 volumes; her reply was printed in the Atlantic Monthly. The head of the Anti-Slavery Society, the Duchess of Sutherland, became very close friends with Harriet as well.

At the beginning of the American Civil War in 1861, Great Britain's consideration to join the South in this onslaught moved Stowe to reply to the British people reminding them of their commitment to the slaves. Britain remained neutral throughout the war. In her journal Stowe wrote about her feelings about the War. She said, "It was God’s will that this nation—both North and South—should deeply and terribly suffer for the sin of consenting to and encouraging the great oppressions of the South…the blood of the poor slave, that had cried so many years from the ground in vain, should be answered by the blood of the sons from the best hearthstones through all the free states." In 1862, Stowe went to see Lincoln to pressure him to free the slaves faster. Her daughter Hattie, who was present at the meeting between Stowe and Lincoln, reports the first thing Lincoln said was, "So you're the little lady who wrote the book that started this Great War."

[edit] Later life

Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe

Harriet Beecher Stowe later said in her journal, "I wrote what I did because as a woman, as a mother I was oppressed and brokenhearted, with the sorrows and injustice I saw, because as a Christian I felt the dishonor to Christianity because as a lover of my country I trembled at the coming day of wrath." Many historians consider “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” a significant force in leading to the Civil War, which ended in the abolition of slavery in America. She aided runaway slaves after the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law. Following the Civil War she built and established several schools and boarding homes for newly freed slaves. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s influence reached people of all walks of life, from government officials, to nobility, down to the common man. In her lifetime she wrote prolifically, yet her influence went beyond words. A book she wrote entitled "How to Live on Christ" so impacted the missionary Hudson Taylor in China, that he sent a copy of the book to each member serving with the China Inland Mission in 1869.

Harriet then moved back to Hartford, Connecticut into a community called Nook Farm. She lived there for the last 23 years of her life. Harriet Beecher Stowe died on July 1, 1896 and was given a dignitary’s funeral. She was buried on the grounds of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts.[2] Writing at the time mourned her death:

There is a movement on foot to erect a monument to the memory of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the well-known authoress, who died at the age of eighty-five.

Mrs. Stowe did much for the advancement of American letters. Before she wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin," story-writing was in its infancy in America. It is hard for young people to realize how the times have changed with the coming of the many magazines and papers that we have to-day. Balzac, Thackeray, Dickens, Dumas, and Hawthorne were publishing their wonderful romances at the time Mrs. Stowe appeared as an authoress. She wrote many other stories during her long life, although her fame rests very largely upon the one book, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," of which many hundreds of thousands of copies have been sold.

Genie H. Rosenfeld., The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 35, July 8, 1897

The Harriet Beecher Stowe House in Hartford, Connecticut is the house where Harriet lived for the last 23 years of her life. In this 5,000 sq ft. cottage style house, there are many of Harriet's original items and items from the time period. In the research library, which is open to the public, there are numerous letters and documents from the Beecher family. The house is opened to the public and offers house tours on the half hour. [1]

The Harriet Beecher Stowe House in Cincinnati, Ohio is the former home of her father Lyman Beecher on the former campus of the Lane Seminary. Harriet lived here until her marriage. It is open to the public and operated as an historical and cultural site, focusing on Harriet Beecher Stowe, the Lane Seminary and the Underground Railroad. The site also presents African-American history. The Harriet Beecher Stowe House in Cincinnati is located at 2950 Gilbert Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45206. [2]

The Stowe Family in Florida. "In the 1870s and 1880s, Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) and her family wintered in Mandarin, south of downtown Jacksonville on the St. Johns River. Best known for Uncle Tom's Cabin, Stowe wrote Palmetto Leaves while living in Mandarin. It was published in 1873 and describes Northeast Florida and its residents. In 1870, Stowe created an integrated school in Mandarin for children and adults. This was an early step toward providing equal education in the area and predated the national movement toward integration by more than a half century. The marker commemorating the Stowe family is located across the street from the former site of their cottage. It is on the property of the Community Club, at the site of a church where Stowe's husband once served as a minister." (Source: Florida Women's Heritage Trail, 2001)

[edit] Partial list of works

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Charles Edward Stowe, Harriet Beecher Stowe: The Story of Her Life. 1911. Page 203.
  2. ^ Find-A-Grave Entry on Harriet Beecher Stowe, buried on Phillips Academy Campus

[edit] References and further reading

  • Adams, John R. (1963). Harriet Beecher Stowe. Twayne Publishers, Inc.. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 63-17370. 
  • Jeanne Boydston, Mary Kelley, and Anne Margolis, The Limits of Sisterhood: The Beecher Sisters on Women's Rights and Woman's Sphere (U of North Carolina Press, 1988),
  • Matthews, Glenna. "'Little Women' Who Helped Make This Great War" in Gabor S. Boritt, ed. Why the Civil War Came - Oxford University Press pp 31-50.
  • Gossett, Thomas F. Uncle Tom’s Cabin and American Culture. Southern Methodist University Press: 1985.
  • Hedrick, Joan D. Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Life. Oxford University Press: 1994, the main scholarly biography
  • Rourke, Constance Mayfield. Trumpets of Jubilee: Henry Ward Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Lyman Beecher, Horace Greeley, P.T. Barnum (1927).
  • Stowe, Charles Edward. The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe: Compiled from her letters and journals. (1889). by her son
  • Thulesius, Olav (2001). Harriet Beecher Stowe in Florida, 1867-1884. McFarland and Company, Inc.. 
  • Sundquist, Eric J. ed. New Essays on Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Cambridge University Press: 1986.
  • Weinstein, Cindy. The Cambridge Companion to Harriet Beecher Stowe. Cambridge UP, 2004. ISBN 978-0-521-53309-6
  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962) pp 3-58
  • Stowe, Harriet Beecher: Three Novels (Kathryn Kish Sklar, ed.) (Library of America, 1982) ISBN 978-0-94045001-1

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